|Publication number||USRE46562 E1|
|Application number||US 14/727,617|
|Publication date||3 Oct 2017|
|Filing date||1 Jun 2015|
|Priority date||11 Jan 2005|
|Also published as||EP1835855A2, EP1835855A4, EP1835855B1, EP2712553A2, EP2712553A3, US7930014, US20060241465, USRE45534, WO2006076409A2, WO2006076409A3|
|Publication number||14727617, 727617, US RE46562 E1, US RE46562E1, US-E1-RE46562, USRE46562 E1, USRE46562E1|
|Inventors||R. Scott Huennekens, Stephen M. Fry, Blair D. Walker, Jon D. Klingensmith, Nancy Perry Pool, Vincent J. Burgess, William R. Kanz|
|Original Assignee||Volcano Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (111), Non-Patent Citations (42), Classifications (21)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Notice: More than one reissue application has been filed for U.S. Pat. No. 7,930,014. The reissue applications are U.S. application Ser. No. 13/865,803, filed Apr. 18, 2013, and the present application, which is a continuation reissue of U.S. application Ser. No. 13/865,803.
This application is a continuation reissue of U.S. application Ser. No. 13/865,303, filed on Apr. 18, 2013, which in an application for reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 7,930,014, which claims priority of Huennekens et al. U.S. provisional application Ser. No. 60/642,893 filed on Jan. 11, 2005, entitled “Catheter Image Co- Registration,” and Walker et al. U.S. provisional application Ser. No. 60/694,014 filed on Jun. 24, 2005, entitled “Three-Dimensional Co-Registration For Intravascular Diagnosis and Therapy”, the contents of both of the above-identified provisional applications are expressly incorporated herein by reference in their entirety including the contents and teachings of any references contained therein.
The present invention generally relates to imaging blood vessels. More particularly, the present invention is directed to methods and systems for generating composite displays relating a first image rendered from a first type of data and a second image rendered from a second type of data. A particular example of such composite display comprises an angiogram displayed along-side an IVUS image.
In coronary arteries, vascular diseases including vessel lumen narrowing, usually due to atherosclerotic plaque, can lead to reduced blood flow to a heart muscle, angina (chest pain) and myocardial infarction—a heart attack. A variety of interventional treatments of cardiovascular disease are presently available to identify and treat such narrowing of a vessel lumen. Examples of such treatments include balloon angioplasty and/or deployment of stents. Diagnostic imaging is utilized to identify the extent and/or type of blockages within vessels prior to and/or during the treatment of such blockages. Diagnostic imaging enables doctors to ensure proper treatment of diseased vessels and verify the efficacy of such treatment.
In general, two distinct manners exist for generating diagnostic images for the identification and treatment of cardiovascular disease within a vasculature. A first manner of diagnostic imaging involves generating a radiological image of a stream flowing through a blood vessel's lumen from outside the vessel lumen. The purpose of generating an image of such flow is to identify blockages within diseased blood vessels that restrict blood flow. The extent of a vessel's lumen is traditionally imaged using angiography, which involves rendering a two-dimensional view of one or more vessels within a portion of a patient's vasculature through which radiopaque contrast media has been injected. The two-dimensional angiographic image can also be viewed real time by fluoroscopy. During such procedures, the images are potentially captured in various digital media, or in cine angiography (cine). Cine angiography, though rendering higher quality images of blood vessel lumens, exposes patients to high levels of ionizing radiation.
Fluoroscopy, generally using substantially less intense radiation than angiography, is used by physicians primarily to visually guide diagnostic and therapeutic catheters or guidewires, including one or more radiopaque markers, through vessels. The radiation intensity during fluoroscopy is typically one-tenth the intensity of radiation to which a patient is exposed during cine angiography. Many catheters have radiopaque markers that are viewable on a fluoroscope, thereby enabling a physician to track the location/path of such catheters as they are inserted within and/or withdrawn from patients. The platinum spring coil of guidewires also serves as a radiopaque marker. The lower radiation intensity of fluoroscopy allows a greater duration of use during a diagnostic/treatment procedure. However, due to its greater time of use, the total radiation exposure from fluoroscopy during an interventional treatment procedure can greatly exceed the radiation exposure during a typical cine angiography procedure. Thus, it is incumbent upon a physician to minimize the duration of time that a fluoroscope is used during a diagnostic and/or interventional treatment procedure.
The first manner of imaging, described above, has a number of drawbacks. For example, limited flow of contrast media near vessel walls and extreme variations in vessel cross-sections can result in incomplete filling of the vessel with a sufficient concentration of contrast media. As a consequence, the diameters of vessel segments can be misrepresented in an angiographic image. For example, a left main coronary artery cross-section is often underestimated by angiography. This can be problematic when attempting to judge the significance of a blockage within the vessel or when choosing the size of the treatment balloon or stent. An under-sized balloon or stent will not provide as effective treatment as a properly sized device. Furthermore, in angiography, a vessel's cross-section is determined by a two-dimensional view which may not accurately represent an actual extent of blood vessel narrowing.
Furthermore, to achieve an optimum treatment result, it is important to correctly determine a true target diameter of a native blood vessel—the diameter of a non-diseased blood vessel. However, angiography is ineffective in determining the target diameter of a vessel with disease along its entire length. For example, since vessels tend to taper in diameter along their length, a uniformly narrowed vessel may appear normal in an angiographic image.
Finally, angiography does not facilitate differentiating between different types of tissue found in atherosclerotic plaque. For example, in coronary arteries prone to producing a heart attack, necrotic tissue is thought to be more prevalent than purely fibrous tissue. Thus, while providing a good way to identify severe blockages, angiography is not always the best diagnostic imaging tool due to the incomplete nature of the angiographic image data.
The second manner of intravascular imaging comprises imaging the vessel itself using a catheter-mounted intravascular probe. Intravascular imaging of blood vessels provides a variety of information about the vessel including: the cross-section of the lumen, the thickness of deposits on a vessel wall, the diameter of the non-diseased portion of a vessel, the length of diseased sections, and the makeup of the atherosclerotic plaque on the wall of the vessel.
Several types of catheter systems have been designed to track through a vasculature to image atherosclerotic plaque deposits on vessel walls. These advanced imaging modalities include, but are not limited to, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheters, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) catheters and optical coherence tomography (OCT) catheters. In addition, thermography catheters and palpography catheters have also been demonstrated to generate vessel image data via intravascular probes. Other catheter modalities that have been proposed include infrared or near-infrared imaging.
In operation, these intravascular catheter-mounted probes are moved along a vessel in the region where imaging is desired. As the probe passes through an area of interest, sets of image data are obtained that, correspond to a series of “slices” or cross-sections of the vessel, the lumen, and surrounding tissue. As noted above, the catheters include radiopaque markers. Such markers are generally positioned near a distal catheter tip. Therefore, the approximate location of the imaging probe can be discerned by observing the catheterization procedure on either a fluoroscope or angiographic image. Typically imaging catheters are connected to a dedicated console, including specialized signal processing hardware and software, and display. The raw image data is received by the console, processed to render an image including features of concern, and rendered on the dedicated display device.
For example, IVUS images used to diagnose/treat vascular disease generally comprise sets of cross-sectional image “slices” of a vessel. A grayscale cross-sectional slice image is rendered, at each of a set of positions along the vessel based upon the intensity of ultrasound echoes received by an imaging probe. Calcium or stent struts, which produce relatively strong echoes, are seen as a lighter shade of gray. Blood or vessel laminae, which produce weaker echoes, are seen as a darker shade of gray.
Atherosclerotic tissue is identified as being the portion of a cross-sectional image between an internal elastic lamina (IEL) and an external elastic lamina (EEL). The ability to see the vessel lumen, and calculate its dimensions, allows the diameters and cross-sectional area of the vessel to be determined more reliably than the limited two-dimensional angiography. Because IVUS does not rely upon dispersing a contrast agent, IVUS is especially useful in generating images of the left main coronary artery as described above. Furthermore, the ability to view the EEL, and calculate its dimensions, allows an IVUS image to render a more reliable determination than angiography, of the correct diameter and length of the balloon or stent to use when restoring proper blood flow to a blocked/diseased vessel. Advanced IVUS images have also been described which perform tissue characterization and denote different types of tissue with a color code. One such modality is described in Vince, U.S. Pat. No. 6,200,268. Like IVUS, the other catheters mentioned above display a series of cross-sectional images from which additional information can be obtained.
Catheter-mounted probes, and in particular, IVUS probes can be configured to render a variety of two and three-dimensional images. In addition to the two-dimensional transverse cross-sectional images discussed above, a longitudinal planar image can be constructed from a plane which cuts through a “stack” of cross-section “slices”. In addition, three-dimensional “fly-through” images can be constructed from information in a series of cross-sectional slices of a vessel. Though these three-dimensional images can be visually impressive, the two dimensional angiography image remains the primary basis for determining the location of a catheter in a vessel, and the “schematic” reference through which the physician plans and carries out a treatment procedure.
In creating the “stack” or “flythrough” images, some assumptions are made by image data processing software in terms of the orientation of each slice to the next. In many cases the compound images, rendered from a series of transverse cross-sectional slices, are rendered in the form of a straight vessel segment. In reality, vessels can curve significantly. In segment visualizations that render straight segments, spatial orientation of each cross-sectional slice in relation to other slices is not measured. In addition, the rotational orientation of a catheter-mounted probe is generally not known due to twisting of the catheter as it passes through a vessel. Therefore, the angular relation between adjacent slices is not generally known. In many cases, these limitations do not significantly effect treatment of a diseased vessel because the typical treatment modalities (balloons, stents) are not circumferentially specific. A balloon, for example, dilates a vessel 360° around a lumen.
In view of the advantages provided by the two above described methods of imaging vessels, many catheter labs use both methods simultaneously to diagnose and treat a patient. However, an angiographic image provided on a different display monitor than a corresponding IVUS image (or the other image rendered by a catheter-mounted probe), presents challenges to a obtaining a comprehensive understanding of a state of a diseased vessel. For example, a physician identifies specific structures (e.g. feeder vessels) in cross-sectional images in order to determine a location on a vessel presented on an angiography display that needs to be treated. Coordinating images rendered by two distinct display devices can become cumbersome as the physician refers back and forth between two different screens on two distinct display devices. In addition, when a video loop of IVUS images is recorded, to be played back later on a machine, a corresponding angiographic image is not recorded in sync with it. Therefore, during playback, the specific cross-section being viewed needs to be compared to the vessel angiography, which is usually on a separate file.
A known visualization display simultaneously provides an angiogram, an IVUS transverse plane view, and an IVUS longitudinal plane view. A red dot is placed upon the angiogram corresponding to a currently displayed IVUS transverse plane view. A blue line is placed upon the angiogram corresponding to a currently displayed longitudinal plane view. The reference dot and line are only as valuable as the accuracy of the process that registers their positions on the angiogram.
In order to provide a better overall view of vascular systems, in accordance with the present invention, a system and method include a single display simultaneously providing a first view of a patient including an angiogram image and a second view including an intravascular image rendered from information provided by an imaging probe mounted on a distal end of a flexible elongate member. A cursor, having a position derived from image information provided by a radiopaque marker proximate the imaging probe, is displayed within the angiogram image to correlate the position of the imaging probe to a presently displayed intravascular image and thus provide an easily discernable identification of a position within a patient corresponding to a currently displayed intravascular image. The resulting composite display simultaneously provides: an intravascular image that includes information about a vessel that is not available from an angiogram and a current location within a vessel of a source of intravascular image data from which the intravascular image is rendered.
While the claims set forth the features of the present invention with particularity, the invention, together with its objects and advantages, may be best understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing of which:
In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, a method and system are described by way of example herein below including image data acquisition equipment and data/image processors that generate views on a single display that simultaneously provides positional information and intravascular images associated with a imaging probe (e.g., an IVUS transducer probe) mounted upon a flexible elongate member (e.g, a catheter, guidewire, etc.).
Turning initially to
With regard to portions of the system associated with acquiring ultrasound image data, an imaging catheter 20, and in particular an IVUS catheter, is inserted within the patient 10 so that its distal end, including a diagnostic probe 22 (in particular an IVUS probe), is in the vicinity of a desired imaging location of a blood vessel. While not specifically identified in
The proximal connector 24 of the catheter 20 is communicatively coupled to a catheter image processor 26. The catheter image processor 26 converts the signals received via the proximal connector 24 into, for example, cross-sectional images of vessel segments. Additionally, the catheter image processor 26 generates longitudinal cross-sectional images corresponding to slices of a blood vessel taken along the blood vessel's length. The IVUS image data rendered by the catheter image processor 26 is initially stored within the processor 26.
The type of diagnostic imaging data acquired by the diagnostic probe 22 and processed by the catheter image processor 26 varies in accordance with alternative embodiments of the invention. In accordance with a particular alternative embodiment, the diagnostic probe 22 is equipped with one or more sensors (e.g., Doppler and/or pressure) for providing hemodynamic information (e.g., blood flow velocity and pressure)—also referred to as functional flow measurements. In such alternative embodiments functional flow measurements are processed by the catheter image processor 26. It is thus noted that the term “image” is intended to be broadly interpreted to encompass a variety of ways of representing vascular information including blood pressure, blood flow velocity/volume, blood vessel cross-sectional composition, shear stress throughout the blood, shear stress at the blood/blood vessel wall interface, etc. In the case of acquiring hemodynamic data for particular portions of a blood vessel, effective diagnosis relies upon the ability to visualize a current location of the diagnostic probe 22 within a vasculature while simultaneously observing functional flow metrics indicative of cardiovascular disease. Co-registration of hemodynamic and radiological images facilitates precise treatment of diseased vessels. Alternatively, instead of catheter mounted sensors, the sensors can be mounted on a guidewire, for example a guidewire with a diameter of 0.018″ or less. Thus, in accordance with embodiments of the present invention, not only are a variety of probe types used, but also a variety of flexible elongate members to which such probes are mounted at a distal end (e.g., catheter, guidewire, etc.).
A co-registration processor 30 receives IVUS image data from the catheter image processor 26 via line 32 and radiological image data from the radiological image processor 18 via line 34. Alternatively, the communications between the sensors and the processors are carried out via wireless media. The co-registration processor 30 renders a co-registration image including both radiological and IVUS image frames derived from the received image data. In accordance with an embodiment of the present invention, indicia (e.g., a radiopaque marker artifact) are provided on the radiological images of a location corresponding to simultaneously displayed IVUS image data. The co-registration processor 30 initially buffers angiogram image data received via line 34 from the radiological image processor 18 in a first portion 36 of image data memory 40. Thereafter, during the course of a catheterization procedure IVUS and radiopaque marker image data received via lines 32 and 34 is stored within a second portion 38 and a third portion 42, respectively, of the image data memory 40. The individually rendered frames of stored image data are appropriately tagged (e.g., time stamp, sequence number, etc.) to correlate IVUS image frames and corresponding radiological (radiopaque marker) image data frames. In an embodiment wherein hemodynamic data is acquired rather than IVUS data, the hemodynamic data is stored within the second portion 38.
In addition, additional markers can be placed on the surface of the patient or within the vicinity of the patient within the field of view of the angiogram/fluoroscope imaging device. The locations of these markers are then used to position the radiopaque marker artifact upon the angiographic image in an accurate location.
The co-registration processor 30 renders a co-registration image from the data previously stored within the first portion 36, second portion 38 and third portion 42 of the image data memory 40. By way of example, a particular IVUS image frame/slice is selected from the second portion 38. The co-registration processor 30 identifies fluoroscopic image data within the third portion 42 corresponding to the selected IVUS image data from the second portion 38. Thereafter, the co-registration processor 30 superimposes the fluoroscopic image data from the third portion 42 upon the angiogram image frame retrieved from the first portion 36. Thereafter, the co-registered radiological and IVUS image frames are simultaneously displayed, along-side one another, upon a graphical display device 50. The co-registered image data frames driving the display device 50 are also stored upon a long-term storage device 60 for later review in a session separate from a procedure that acquired the radiological and IVUS image data stored in the image data memory 40.
While not shown in
Alternatively, the composite radiological image 410 is obtained in one step. In such case, the original roadmap angiogram image is obtained with the catheter already in its starting position. However, once obtained, the angiogram image is reused as the IVUS probe is withdrawn from the vessel.
The system also takes heart motion into account when generating/acquiring the radiological and IVUS image data. By way of example, by acquiring the image data for both the angiogram (background) and the radiopaque marker only during the peak R-wave of the EKG, heart motion is much less a factor and good overlay correlation exists between the angiogram and fluoroscope fields of view. The peak R-wave is selected because it represents end-diastole, during which the heart has the least amount of motion, and thus, a more consistent condition from which to obtain the radiological image data. The peak R-wave is also an easy point in the EKG for the system to detect.
With continued reference to
The simultaneous display of both the composite/enhanced radiological image and the cross-sectional image allows instant awareness of both disease state of a vessel segment and the location of the vessel segment within a patient. Such comprehensive information is not readily discernable in a three dimensional flythrough image or a stacked longitudinal image. Neither flythrough nor stacked images alone allows for the simultaneous appreciation of 1) all of the information in a cross-section, 2) a feel for the shape of the vessel and 3) the location of the cross-section along the length of the vessel. The above-described “co-registration” of enhanced angiographic (including the marker artifact) and intravascular cross-sectional images/information delivers all three of these items in a presentation that is straight forward to an operator with even average visual and spatial abilities. The co-registration display is presented, by way of example, either on an IVUS console display, or the co-registration display is presented on one or more angiographic monitors, either in the room where the procedure is occurring or in a remote location. For example, one monitor over the table in the procedure room allows the attending physician to view the procedure, while at the same time a second consulting physician who has not scrubbed for the case is also able to view the case via a second monitor containing the co-registration display from a separate control room. Control room viewing is also possible without having to wear leaded covering.
With regard to the persistence of the background angiogram (“roadmap”) image portion of the enhanced radiological image 410, a single angiogram image is, by way of example, obtained/generated and stored in the first portion 36 of the memory 40 for a given procedure/patient position. If the field of view changes or the patient's position changes, then an updated background angiogram image is generated and stored in the first portion 36. Alternatively, the background angiogram image is live or continuously updated, for example, at each additional step in which angiography is performed. The projection of the angiogram roadmap/background image portion of the enhanced radiological image 410 is preferably in an orientation and magnification that best displays the entire vessel to be viewed, taking into account the foreshortening that is present in a tortuous/winding vessel. Alternatively, two roadmap images (or even two enhanced radiological images 410) can be used/displayed in place of the one image 410. Such multiple views are provided in the context of biplane angiography.
Establishing a position for the marker artifact within the field of the enhanced radiological image, based at least in part upon a radiopaque marker on the imaging catheter 20 is achievable in a variety of ways. Examples, described further herein below include: user-specified points (by clicking at a position near the marker to establish a point); image pattern recognition (automatic identification of a marker's unique signature within a field of view); and combinations of manual and automated calculations of a path.
Enhancing the background/roadmap angiogram image to render the image 410 is achieved in a number of different ways. As mentioned above, in an illustrative embodiment, the marker artifact 420 (derived from a fluoroscope image of a radiopaque marker near the probe 22 mounted on the distal end of the catheter 20) is superimposed upon/overlays the angiogram/roadmap background of the enhanced radiological image 410. Because the live/marker artifact portion of the image 410 requires that fluoroscopy be performed the entire time of catheter movement (e.g. pullback), in an alternative embodiment, the marker artifact is displayed on the image 410 only during those periods when the fluoroscope is active. When the fluoroscope is inactive, only the background angiogram is presented on the enhanced image 410 of the display 50.
With continued reference to
Similarly, a re-calculation can also update a shape of the calculated path 550/560 curve. As seen in
In accordance with yet another embodiment, represented by the co-registered IVUS image 700 and enhanced radiological image 710 in a display 701 presented in
In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, a user interface associated with the displayed images provided in
It is noted that various catheter marking schemes are contemplated that improve/optimize the co-registration processor 30's calculations of a position of the marker artifact (representing a position within a vessel corresponding to a currently displayed IVUS cross-section image) when the fluoroscope is inactive. Turning to
Upon connection of the proximal connector 24 of the catheter 20 into an outlet on the catheter image processor 26 (or an interposed patient interface module which is communicatively connected to the processor 26), the processor 26 receives identification information from the catheter 20 via EPROM, RFID, optical reader or any other appropriate method for identifying the catheter 20. In an illustrative embodiment, the catheter length and diameter dimensions (or dimension ratio) are included in the received identification information. In addition, image field information such as magnification and/or projection angle) from the radiological image processor 18 is provided to the co-registration processor 30. By identifying four points at the corners of an approximate four-sided polygon of the marker band image, the co-registration processor 30 automatically calculates foreshortening of a vessel in an enhanced radiological image view and the true length of a segment of a calculated path.
Turning briefly to
Other controls associated with the co-registration processor 30 facilitate performing a variety of additional tasks. For example, during a catheter pullback, a commenting functionality incorporated into the processor 30 enables a user to select a “bookmark” button. In response, the co-registration processor 30 attaches a note/comment to a specific cross-section and/or location along a calculated path on an enhanced radiological image.
As mentioned above, an alternative version of co-registration image scheme incorporates biplane angiography instead of standard, single view angiography images. In biplane angiography, two radiological projections are simultaneously presented to a user—e.g., two views skewed by 90 degrees on a common axis of rotation. In such systems, two enhanced radiological images are presented along-side a cross-sectional image. During an inactive fluoroscopy period, when marker artifact (cursor) position is determined by calculations in relation to a known pullback rate, two cursor positions are determined—one on each of the two enhanced radiological images. It is expected that at certain periods during which fluoroscopy is inactive, the foreshortening of the vessel seen on one biplane image is less than the other. Depending on the 3-dimensional vessel tortuosity, it is expected that the opposite biplane image would have less foreshortening at other periods where a marker artifact is based upon calculations rather than actual fluoroscope images. The errors are calculated independently in the two different biplane images, and corresponding scaling factors are generated for the correction. As previously mentioned, a derived 3-dimensional road-map is created based on information of the two images from different planes. In this case, the two different planes are the 90° biplane images Locating a marker artifact on a derived 3-D image is calculated from locations of marker artifacts one each of two orthogonal biplane images.
All of the descriptions hereinabove associated with illustrative embodiments using an IVUS catheter are applicable to a variety of alternative types of imaging catheters. Similarly, an enhanced radiological image can be combined with a longitudinal stack instead of a cross sectional slice—in fact, the enhanced radiological, transverse cross-sectional, and longitudinal cross-sectional images can be displayed together. In yet other embodiments, the enhanced radiological image is presented along-side an IVUS image including both grayscale and color image artifacts that characterizing tissue and deposits within a vessel. Additionally, the longitudinal IVUS grayscale image and/or the color (Virtual Histology) image are overlaid on the 2-D angiographic image or derived 3-D image.
The above-described examples of co-registration have primarily addressed IVUS examples. However, as mentioned above, co-registration is alternatively incorporated into functional flow measurement systems that provide hemodynamic image information such as blood flow velocity and pressure. Turning briefly to
The display also includes a variety of additional text information associated with the section of the vessel identified by the marker artifact 1020. Vessel dimensions 1030 specify an approximate diameter and lumen area of a particular cross section indicated by the marker artifact 1020's current position on the enhanced radiological image 1010. Additionally, IVUS information 1040 specify a plaque burden percentage and a total plaque area for a current cross-sectional slice indicated by the marker artifact 1020. An FFR information 1050 specifies a current FFR value associated with the current location of the marker artifact 1020. It is noted that the marker artifact 1020 approximates the location of a probe (e.g., probe 22) at the time data was acquired to render the presently displayed data values. In accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the location of the marker artifact 1020 is derived from image data provided by a radiopaque element/marker located near a probe mounted upon a flexible elongate member such as probe 22 mounted on a guidewire or catheter 20.
By way of example, the marker artifact 1020 operates as a slider control that enables a user to sequentially traverse a set of stored data records containing information of the type displayed in
Other types of interventional ultrasound imaging, such as Intracardiac Echocardiography are also envisioned that utilize this co-registration system. For example a steerable catheter with a linear, curvilinear, circumferential or other ultrasonic array at the distal end is placed into or in proximity to the chambers of the heart, and its location is incorporated into an enhanced ultrasound image.
Having described exemplary systems embodying the present invention, attention is directed to
Thereafter, during step 1105 an initial calculated path (e.g., path 550) is generated by the co-registration processor 30. This estimation of the path can be generated according to any of a variety of methods including: automated two-dimensional and three-dimensional path calculations; manual path specification; and user assisted automated path calculations (a combination of automated path calculation with user-specified over-rides). The calculated path is superimposed upon the angiogram image generated during step 1100 and represents the projected path of the probe 22 when pullback is commenced of the probe 22.
In an exemplary embodiment, the operation of the co-registration system is determined by whether the fluoroscope has been activated (providing a live image of a radiopaque marker mounted proximate the probe 22). If the fluoroscope is active, then control passes to step 1115 wherein a fluoroscope image (see, e.g.,
At step 1125 the co-registration processor 30 superimposes/overlays a marker artifact on the previously stored angiogram image to render the aforementioned enhanced radiological image. The marker artifact derives is position, at least in part, from the previously acquired and stored radiopaque marker position data. The enhanced radiological (e.g., angiogram) image is thereafter stored with the timestamp associated with the radiopaque marker position data during step 1130.
Thereafter, at step 1135 the co-registration processor 30 renders and simultaneously presents on a display/monitor the previously generated enhanced angiogram image and a corresponding probe (IVUS) image. The enhanced angiogram image and the corresponding probe image are displayed along-side one another on the display/monitor. Selection of a corresponding image is based upon a timestamp associated with the selected IVUS probe image. The respective timestamps of the radiological and probe components of the co-registered display need not be identical. In an embodiment of the invention a closest match criterion is applied to the selection process. Control then returns to step 1110 for another iteration of the co-registration imaging process.
Alternatively, if the fluoroscope is inactive during a period wherein a pullback mechanism is drawing the probe 22 through a segment of a vessel of interest, then control passes from step 1110 to step 1150. At 1150 the co-registration processor 30 acquires/registers a pullback rate for the pullback mechanism. At step 1155 image data associated with the probe 22 is acquired, timestamped and stored. In the illustrative example, the image data comprises an IVUS image generated by an ultrasound transducer probe mounted upon the imaging catheter 20. During step 1160 the processor 30 determines a time that has elapsed since the previous calculation of the artifact marker position. In cases where the elapsed time is a constant, this step need not be repeated once the elapsed time constant has been determined. During step 1165 the co-registration processor 30 generates an estimate of a present position of the probe 22 and a corresponding marker artifact position on the enhanced radiological image. By way of example, the pullback rate and the elapsed time between a previous marker artifact position determination and the present position determination are used to generate a present position estimate for the marker artifact.
Thereafter, during step 1170 the co-registration processor 30 superimposes/overlays a marker artifact on the angiogram at the new calculated position based upon the calculated path and the distance calculation rendered during step 1165. During step 1175 the enhanced radiological (e.g., angiogram) image is stored with the timestamp associated with the calculated marker artifact position data. Thereafter, at step 1180 the resulting enhanced radiological image is utilized to render and present a co-registered display including both the enhanced angiogram image and a corresponding (based upon timestamp) previously stored probe image. Control thereafter returns to step 1110.
The above-described steps are associated with providing a co-registered display as an intravascular probe mounted upon a flexible elongate member (e.g., a catheter, guidewire, etc.) progresses along a length of blood vessel. Co-registered displays are also rendered in a playback mode. Turning to
During step 1205 a user positions the cursor/slider mark on the calculated path. Such repositioning can occur in any of a number of ways. By way of example, the user drags and drops the cursor/slider using a mouse. Alternatively, a keyboard input can advance/backup the cursor/slider through a series of previously designated/bookmarked points along the calculated path displayed within the enhanced angiogram image provided during step 1200. Yet other keys can be used to advance the cursor/slider on a record-by-record basis through a set of stored records associated with the progression of the probe 22 along the calculated path. Still other modes of selecting a position of interest on the calculated path and its associated probe 22 (e.g., IVUS) image will be contemplated by those skilled in the art in view of the description provided herein.
During step 1210 in response to a particular position/timestamp associated with a current position of the cursor/slider on the enhanced radiological image, the co-registration processor 30 accesses a corresponding record within the set of records derived from the data provided by the probe 22. By way of example, such data sets include cross-sectional IVUS images or alternatively FFR values at specified positions along a blood vessel. Thereafter, during step 1215 a co-registered view is presented wherein the enhanced radiological image, including the calculated path and cursor/slider (derived at least partially from positional information provided by a radiopaque marker during data acquisition), is displayed along-side an image (e.g., an IVUS cross-section) derived from data provided by the probe 22 at a position indicated by the current cursor/slider position within the enhanced radiological image. The steps depicted in
The structures, techniques, and benefits discussed above are merely exemplary embodiments of the invention. In view of the many possible embodiments to which the principles of this invention may be applied, it should be recognized that the embodiments described herein with respect to the drawing figures are meant to be illustrative only and should not be taken as limiting the scope of invention. For example, while separate processors are shown to carry out particular aspects of the invention, in alternative embodiments the functionality of the multiple processors can be incorporated into a single processor or even distributed among even more processors. Therefore, the invention as described herein contemplates all such embodiments as may come within the scope of the following claims and equivalents thereof.
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|International Classification||A61B8/00, A61B34/20, A61B5/06, A61B8/12, A61B6/00, A61B5/05, A61B5/0215|
|Cooperative Classification||A61B8/543, A61B8/463, A61B6/504, A61B6/487, A61B5/06, A61B8/4494, A61B6/5247, A61B6/4494, A61B5/0215, A61B6/4441, A61B6/463, A61B6/12, A61B8/12, A61B34/20|